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          迪奧科技標語
          Basic structure and working principle of CCD
          Author:Administrator   Published in:2019-12-04 10:23

          Charge coupled devices (ChargeCoupledDevices, CCD for short) were invented by Bell Labs' WSBoyle and GESmith in 1970.Because it has the functions of photoelectric conversion, information storage, delay, and the transmission of electrical signals in sequence, it has a high degree of integration Because of its low power consumption and subsequent rapid development, it is an essential key device for image acquisition and digital processing. It is widely used in science, education, medicine, commerce, industry, military, and consumer fields.


          Many people think that CCD is just a chip. But in fact, the CCD is made into a complete component with the processor (as shown below).


          1575425878639120.jpg

          CCD component


          If you cut the CCD, you will find that the structure of the CCD is like a sandwich. The first layer is a micro lens, the second layer is a dichroic filter, and the third layer is a photosensitive bus.


          1. The first layer of the CCD is the lens. This is to effectively improve the pixels of the CCD, and to ensure that a single pixel continues to shrink to maintain the standard volume of the CCD. Therefore, the light receiving area of a single pixel must be expanded. However, by increasing the aperture ratio to increase the light receiving area, the image quality is deteriorated. Therefore, the aperture ratio can only be increased to a certain limit, otherwise the CCD will become inferior. To improve this problem, tiny lenses are installed on each photodiode (single pixel). This design is like hanging the glasses on the CCD. The photosensitive area is no longer determined by the opening area of the sensor, but by the surface area of the micro lens. In this way, the size of a single pixel can be taken into account at the same time, and the aperture ratio can be increased in the specifications, which greatly improves the sensitivity.


          2. The second layer of the CCD is a color separation filter. There are currently two color separation methods, one is the RGB primary color separation method, and the other is the CMYG complementary color separation method. These two methods have advantages and disadvantages. However, in terms of output, the ratio of primary color and complementary color CCD is about 2: 1. The primary color CCD has the advantage of sharp image quality and true color, but the disadvantage is noise. Therefore, the DC of the primary color CCD is generally not more than 400 in ISO sensitivity. The complementary color CCD has a Y yellow color filter, which is more careful in the color resolution, but it sacrifices part of the resolution. At the ISO value, the complementary color CCD can tolerate higher sensitivity, which can generally be set at 800 or more. (See the figure below for these two separation methods)

          1575425886225171.png

          Color separation chart


          3. The third layer of the CCD is a photosensitive bus bar. This layer is mainly responsible for converting the light source penetrating the color filter layer into an electronic signal and transmitting the signal to the image processing chip to restore the image.


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          亚洲国产剧情中文视频在线
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